I enable learn thoughtout high school. And the main thing I learned was critical thinking.
As good as life gets I’m nervous. Nervous about Healthcare reform, being in love, or just a solider. Dear me when I think about the pain of the people it hurts me. But physically and mentally. I wouldn’t wish a day in my life on anyone. Especially if you are a good friend. Some individuals don’t know how to live.
So, what is the truth growing wise-and grey. Or, do I still have the comedic outpost for storytelling…The truth behind this is part of well-doing and it was just to be. I know you remember Benjamin Button. Growing older and younger. Well I’m here today for the first time in a year talking about age.
100 years old in the United States in the same way. If I see myself as older I deal with the unknown situation. That is why we need the same day to celebrate. See on my 100th birthday I want to celebrate with everyone. Not just me, and I will not have to worry.
Concerns And Intentions Pt. 5
As far as I see it were set to take words as our own master. It’s with words cultures understand each other. This is prevalent where every you go; I wouldn’t use the word God to a group of people who didn’t know who that was. So, in this encased implication implemented reqiures a lot of the life it takes to recall or rethink.
Concerns And Intentions Pt. 3
Living like most people expect is a concern to handle a point of home love. This has been as concern, otherwise approaches together, to help with insecurities or even uncertainty. Being married for nearly ten years has been a blessing in disguise and gift from family and friends to be able to enjoy. The last thing that happens when you say I do is that people except you to be happy and the conclusion is it itself. So, I ask the question do we recall helping ourselves rethink, because we can or can’t not measure something important in today’s society? Immeasurably we deal directly with each other and are gifted with the household or someone who loves you. this remains the be all end all; solid and living together.
Formal social control is carried out by authorized agents. Law may be defined as governmental social control. Sociologists see the creation of laws as a a social process. Laws are created in response to perceived needs for formal social control. Thus, deviance is behavior that violates standards of conduct or expectations of a group of society. Stigma, the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups. This is the functionalist perspective deviance that helps to define the limits of proper behavior. Anomie a loss of direction felt in society when social control is individual behavior has become ineffective.
People adapt in certain ways, either by conforming to or by deviating from such culture expectations. Anomie theory of deviance conformity acceptance of both the over social goal and approved means. That deviants share a great deal with conforming people cultural transmission one learns criminal behavior through interactions others such techniques motives, drives, and rationalizations of criminals. Differential association process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules. Routine activities theory criminal victimization is increased when motives offenders and suitable targets converge. Labeling theory explain why certain people are viewed as deviants delinquents, and criminals, which other behavior is similarly not seen in such harsh terms.
Centralization vs. Decentralization
UntitledCommon Elements: ScheinThe four common elements of an organization include common purpose, coordinated effort, division of labor, and hierarchy of authority. Organizational psychologist Edgar Schein proposed the four common elements of an organization:
Division of labor
Hierarchy of authority
Common purpose is the means for unifying members. An organization without purpose soon begins to drift and become disorganized.
The common purpose unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization’s reason for being.Coordinated effort entails working together for the common purpose. The common purpose is realized through the coordinated effort of all individuals and groups within an organization. Although it’s true that individuals can make a difference, they cannot do everything by themselves. Individuals who join together and coordinate their mental and or physical efforts can accomplish great and exciting things .Division of labor, also known as work specification for greater efficiency, is the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people.
With division of labor, an organization can parcel out the entire complex work effort to be performed by specialists, which results in greater efficiency. By systematically dividing complex tasks into specialized jobs, an organization can use its human resources efficiently (Figure 2.4).Hierarchy of authority, or the chain of command, is a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time. Even in member-owned organizations, some people have more authority than others, although their peers may have granted it to them. In addition, authority is most effective when arranged in a hierarchy. Without tiers or ranks of authority, a lone manager would have to confer with everyone in his or her domain, making it difficult to get things done.Source: https://www.boundless.com/management/organizational-structure–2/components-of-an-organization/common-elements-schein/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Other Common ElementsOther common elements of an organization include span of control, departmentalization, centralization and decentralization. Span of control is a means of ensuring proper coordination of and a sense of accountability among employees.
Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has. It is important because it determines the number of levels and managers an organization has as well as the number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage. In the execution of a task, organizations usually have different levels of task processes, and workers at various levels send reports on their progress to the next levels until the work is completed.In the past in hierarchical business organization it was not uncommon to see average spans of one-to-four; that is, one manager supervised four employees. In the 1980s corporate leaders flattened many organizational structures, which caused average spans to move closer to one-to-ten. That was made possible primarily by the development of inexpensive information technology. As it developed further and eased many middle manager tasks – tasks like collecting, manipulating, and presenting operational information – upper managers found they could hire fewer middle managers and thus save money.
Departmentalization is the process of grouping individuals into departments and departments into total organizations. Different approaches include:Functional – departmentalization by common skills and work tasksDivisional – departmentalization by common product, program, or geographical locationMatrix – a combination of Functional and DivisionalTeam – for accomplishing specific tasksNetwork – independent departments providing functions for a central core breakerWhen the decision-making authority is centered near the top organization levels, this is known as centralization. Centralization increases consistency in the processes and procedures that employees use in performing tasks. In this way, it promotes workplace harmony among workers and reduces the cost of production. Centralization is usually helpful when an organization is in crisis and or faces the risk of failure.
Times of crisis make it necessary for workers to perform as efficiently as they can, hence the need for management control. To achieve greater efficiency, management must reduce or remove poor performance.With centralized authority, important decisions are made by higher-level managers. Very small companies tend to be most centralized. An advantage in using centralized authority is that there is less duplication of work, because fewer employees perform the same task. Another advantage of centralization is that procedures are uniform and thus easier to control (Figure 2.5). Decentralization is found when the location of decision-making authority is near lower organizational levels. With decentralized authority, important decisions are made by middle-level and supervisory-level managers. An advantage in having decentralized authority is that managers are encouraged to solve their own problems rather than to buck the decision to a higher level.
In addition, decisions are made more quickly, which increases the organization’s flexibility.Source: https://www.boundless.com/management/organizational-structure–2/components-of-an-organization/other-common-elements/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource KEY POINTSThe four common elements of an organization as proposed by Edgar Schein include common purpose, coordinated effort, division of labor, and hierarchy of authority.Common purpose unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization’s reason for being.Coordinated effort is the coordination of individual efforts into a group or organization-wide effort.Division of labor is the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people for greater efficiency.Hierarchy of authority is the control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time. KEY POINTSOrganizational psychologist Edgar Schein proposed four common elements of an organization; however, other elements exist as well.
Span of control is a means of ensuring proper coordination of and a sense of accountability among employees. It refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has.Departmentalization is the basis by which an organization groups tasks together. There are five known bases: functional, divisional, matrix, team, and network.When the location of decision-making authority is near top organization levels, this is known as centralization. Centralization increases consistency in the processes and procedures that employees use in performing tasks.Decentralization is found when the location of decision-making authority is near lower organizational levels. With decentralized authority, important decisions are made by middle-level and supervisory-level managers. Common Elements: ScheinOther Common Elements Section 2 Components of an Organization Common Elements: ScheinOther Common Elements
This matrix describes the division of labor on Wikipedia according to some statistics. Division of Labor 86 87 88 Centralization is found when the location of decision-making authority is near top organization levels. Decentralization is found when the location of decision-making authority is near lower organizational levels.
Centralization vs. Decentralization
META TAG (title): UntitledChoosing a TopicWhen choosing your speech topic, brainstorm to generate many ideas, and distill those ideas to find your singular topic. As you begin to prepare for any speech, it’s important to pin down exactly about what you plan to talk. You might have been given a specific topic by a professor or supervisor, or you may be simply invited to speak at an event where the topic is up to you. Knowing how to carefully select your topic is an important first step in preparing for a successful speech.Start by thinking about your venue. Where will you be giving your speech? To whom will you be speaking? (We’ll get to analyzing your audience in the next section.) Then, start to think about what you know about the topic, and move towards those subjects or tangents about which you don’t know. It’s helpful to speak about a topic with which you are already familiar, but sometimes you may be called into situations where you have no prior knowledge about a given subject.In either instance, it’s helpful to approach your topic through brainstorming.Brainstorming One of the best ways to help solidify your speech topic is to brainstorm. You can brainstorm by yourself, or you might want to bring in a few friends, colleagues or classmates to help you come up with ideas in a group setting. You can brainstorm using a number of different exercises.Word AssociationStart with a broad topic idea.
What words, topics, or other subjects do you associate with that first topic? Now what words, topics, or other subjects do you associate with the following word? Continue this chain of word association to give you a broad spectrum of ideas.ClusteringAlso known as mind-mapping, clustering gives your word association a visual form. Start with your main idea and draw a circle around it, thinking of it like the hub of a wheel. Now, begin to write other associated ideas, topics, or subcategories related to that main topic around the hub, and connect them as separate spokes. From each spoke, begin to jot down other associated ideas and thoughts. As your cluster begins to grow, you might want to connect smaller spokes to one another and create new links between subjects.FreewritingThis is probably the simplest brainstorm method of all. Set a timer and begin writing whatever thoughts or ideas come to mind about your particular subject.
You might find it easier to type your freewriting instead of writing it by hand, so you can keep up with your thoughts faster. Whatever you do, don’t stop writing.Another way of freewriting is to record yourself talking for a set period of time and then transcribing your key points to go back to and clarify later. Once your time is up, go back and highlight or circle relevant points or topics that stick out for you. You’ll refine these later.Distill Your Ideas into One TopicOnce you’ve brainstormed your many ideas, it’s time to refine your ideas and distill them into one topic. Look for themes, patterns, and commonalities when going through your brainstorming notes. Use these themes to help guide you toward a singular topic.Do a Little HomeworkWhile you will definitely research your topic, you might want to do some “presearch” – that is, a little research before the real research. Do a quick scan to see what others have said or written about your topic. This might give you even more ideas of how to refine and distill your topic, or more appropriately adapt it to your audience or venue.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/choosing-a-topic–2/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Analyzing the Who, Why, and WhereKnowing and understanding your audience is one of the most important parts of developing an effective speech. Analyze Your AudienceOnce you’ve established your topic, it’s time to focus on whom you’re speaking to. Next to identifying your topic, understanding your audience is one of the most important things you can do in preparing for your speech.Understanding Your DemographicsThink about your audience: what do they look like? What might they have in common? What might you have in common with them? These are important things to consider as you begin to get a sense of just who will be sitting in front of you when you deliver your speech (Figure 3.7 ).Consider the gender of your audience: male, female, or a mix? Are they older, younger? Would you consider them your peers? Have you met any of them before? Think about all the possible demographics of your audience, from gender and age to ethnicity, culture, and occupation. But remember: just because you might be speaking to one group of people, that doesn’t mean you should stereotype that group. In fact, if you do end up stereotyping your audience, you’re more likely to lose them than engage them.Also think about the knowledge that your audience brings to your presentation. They might be extremely well-versed in or they might not have the faintest idea about your topic. The more you can tailor your speech to your audience, the more effective and persuasive your speech will be.
Tempering EthnocentrismYou should know that in any situation, you bring with you your own unique world-view and set of biases. You should especially be aware of your unique world-view and biases in your speech because they may negatively impact people of different cultures, ages, genders, etc.The same goes for the use of gestures or mannerisms. Some everyday gestures may actually be offensive to other cultures. For example, at any Disney theme park, all the workers, when giving directions to tourists and visitors, always point with two fingers instead of one. Pointing a single finger in some cultures is considered extremely rude.Some idioms and expressions that may seem natural and make sense to you may actually be quite confusing to people of different cultures or languages. Try to take a step back and consider the ethnocentric view you may be bringing to your audience and consider ways to minimize or temper those unique perspectives so as not to alienate your audience.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/analyzing-the-who-why-and-where/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Topic Research: Gathering Materials and EvidenceIn order to fully substantiate any claims you make in your speech, you must fully research those claims and provide supporting evidence. Research and Gather Your MaterialsNow that you’ve figured out your topic and given some thought as to who will be your audience, it’s time to roll up your sleeves and begin the real work of preparing your speech (Figure 3.8 ). In this section, we’ll discuss how to best research and gather your materials and supporting evidence. Finding Credible SourcesThe first instinct for many people preparing a speech is to go out and find every piece of information they can, often via search engines online. While this is a great way to “presearch,” you’ll want to really pay attention to the sources from which you’re gathering your information. If you want to successfully substantiate any claim in your speech, you’ll need to make sure you back it up with information from credible sources.
Just What Makes a Source “Credible”?Typically, hard, irrefutable facts make for a credible source. Fact: the Earth is anywhere from 36 to 63 million miles away from Mars, depending on orbital locations of either planet. But if you have a claim that could stray anywhere into the realm of opinion (such as, the existence of extraterrestrial life in the universe besides that on Earth), you’ll want to make sure you have credible sources to back up that claim.Many times, you’ll want to turn to scholarly sources. Academic journals and publications (particularly if they have been peer-reviewed) make for excellent scholarly sources. Additionally, there’s no reason that you can’t approach an expert in the field that you are researching. In the latter instance, this is considered a primary source of information and can sometimes help point you in the right direction to find other credible sources of information.When in doubt, ask your friendly librarian. They can often point you to online journal collections or academic search engines where you can find reliable, credible sources.Keeping Your Research OrganizedAs you begin to assemble your research, it’s imperative to keep your notes centrally located and easily accessible. You might want to create a binder to keep all of your papers and notes together, or dedicate a multi-sectioned notebook to your research. You might take notes on notecards, organizing them by color or heading. If you take your notes online, you can use cloud computing to store your research remotely to access them anywhere on the go.
Other software exists to keep your notes files and organized electronically on your computer.Always keep records of where you got your information. You’ll need this in case someone ever decides to question you about your facts after your speech. Also, this shows people that, yes, you’ve done your homework. Additionally, you should never copy any information word for word and claim it as your own. Plagiarism will only damage your reputation and the credibility and ethics of your speech in addition to potentially causing you to fail a class, lose your job, or worse.However you organize your notes, just make sure you have them organized and handy. You never know when you might run into a primary source!Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/topic-research-gathering-materials-and-evidence/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Developing Your ThesisAll speeches must have a point or a main argument – a thesis. In some circumstances, you will most likely be arguing some kind of point or message in your speech (Figure 3.9 ). The main argument of your speech – the main point you want your audience to understand – is the thesis of your speech.The Thesis StatementIn any opinion piece, written or spoken, the main argument – the thesis statement – comes at the beginning. You want your audience to know right away the point you are trying to make. It is important to remember that your thesis statement only addresses one main issue; the ways in which you choose to support your thesis add complexity and depth to your speech.Arriving at Your ThesisWhen composing your thesis statement,
Consider and answer the following questions:
• How do you feel about your topic?• How does your audience generally feel about your topic?• What do you want your audience to feel or believe about your topic?• What other opinions have been said/written about your topic?• Are you arguing for or against your topic?• What social issues factor into your topic?• What is your topic’s influence on the individual, a particular community or society as a whole?As you begin to answer these questions, start thinking about ways you want to support your thesis with compelling, persuasive examples.Playing Devil’s AdvocateNo matter how you choose to argue your point, it is important to take a step back and play devil’s advocate; that is, take a look at your argument from that of the opposing viewpoint. By considering all sides of your argument, you will bolster your case by preparing for all possible objections and rebuttals to the claims you intend to make in your speech.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/developing-your-thesis/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Supporting Your Ideas.
Use a variety of ways to support the ideas and claims that you make with your thesis statement to give your speech depth and dynamics. Once you have solidified your position in your thesis statement, you want to back up your thesis with a variety of supporting ideas and examples. To do this, there are several ways you can support your claims while adding variety and interest to the overall story of your speech (Figure 3.10 ).Set the StageUsing exposition is a great way to get your audience all on the same playing field. When you use an expository approach, you’re carefully laying out all of the background information your audience needs to know in order to understand your point.Appeal to Commonalities.
As you notice commonalties between audience members, the audience and your topic, and you and your audience, appeal to those commonalities to not only establish rapport but also to more easily persuade them to your thesis and claims. Your audience is more likely to trust and believe you if they feel they share something in common with you and your topic.Finding a ConsensusYour audience may already feel a certain way about your topic. Depending on what you’re trying to argue, you may want to go ahead and appeal to that consensus. Just be careful: you don’t want to bore your audience by “preaching to the choir.”Tell a StoryOne of the best ways to back up your claims–besides cold, hard, facts and data–is to share a personal story or anecdote. This shows your audience that you really connect to your subject, making you more believable and personable. Using anecdotes are a perfect opportunity to lighten the mood and add some humor as appropriate to your speech.Deconstruct Your TopicYou might have a particularly complex subject or thesis. In these instances, it’s helpful to break it down into its simplest parts. By breaking your information down into bite-sized chunks, your audience may have an easier time of following your train of thought or logic.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/supporting-your-ideas/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Organizing and Outlining the SpeechArrange your speech – your thesis, additional points, and supporting evidence – in a way that will make sense to your audience. Now that you have decided on your topic, analyzed your audience, arrived at your thesis, and determined how you will support your claims, it is time to organize your notes and research into one coherent speech.You did keep all of your notes centrally collected and easily accessible, right? If you put all of your research notes and thoughts onto notecards, it is particularly helpful to lay them out in front of you and begin to organize your points and sub-points in ways that make the most logical sense (Figure 3.11 ).Establish a TimelineDepending on your subject and the point you are attempting to make, it might make sense to order your research and points in chronological order. If you are giving a speech on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire, it makes sense to start with its rise, and end with its fall. Outlining your speech as a series of chronological events or points allows your audience to follow along a linear timeline for easy understanding of your subject matter. Your Thesis as the Sum of Its PartsThink of your thesis like a machine. Each claim is another cog, each example or supporting evidence another lever in that machine, all working together to arrive at the same persuasive conclusion. Sometimes it is helpful to break up your thesis into each of these smaller parts, to make the information more easily digestible for your audience.
The Broad and the SpecificBuilding on the idea of your thesis as machine, you may present your overall, broad idea, then break it down into smaller, logical steps to reach that big idea. Conversely, you may start with smaller ideas and expand into the bigger, broader idea. When constructing your arguments from smaller ideas, you are more likely to drive your point home with a broad, sweeping finish. On the other hand, you can dilute the complexity of a broad idea by breaking it down into smaller, logical pieces of information. A Sample OutlineHere is a sample outline about issues of feminism in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet:I. Introduction and Thesis: Brief description of issues that arise when reading “Hamlet”II. Issues of feminism uncovered through reading “Hamlet” a. What other scholars have discovered about feminism in “Hamlet” b. Which of these discoveries was most evident c. Ideas of feminism I uncovered on my ownIII. How uncovering ideas of feminism in “Hamlet” has led me to better understand what Shakespeare thought of the role women played in societyIV. ConclusionSource: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/organizing-and-outlining-the-speech/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Wording the SpeechA good speech is not written in one sitting; write multiple drafts, then review and edit before settling on a final text. Find the Right Wording for Your SpeechThe art of public speaking comes from the eloquence of the speaker. While researching your subject and outlining your speech may seem like the most time-consuming aspect of preparation, taking the time to write your speech can actually take the most time to complete (Figure 3.12 ).Writing Your First DraftWhen you begin writing your speech, don’t assume what you write now will be the final version of your speech. A draft is simply your first pass at what you plan to say. Using your outline as a guide, refer to your organized research notes (that you’ve centrally collected and have easily accessible for just such an occasion, right?) to begin to flesh out your speech.
It is helpful to take an ABC approach to writing your speech. Introduce your subject and thesis in an Abstract, or introduction, section. This abstract gives a general summary about what you plan to speak. Then write your Body, where you will make and substantiate claims to support and argue your thesis. Finally, write your Conclusion, tying it all together in one memorable finish.You may find that you start to veer off-topic as you begin to write your speech. You will have time to go back and prune later; for now, the focus is to keep writing.Refine, Refine, Refine: Editing and RevisingNow that you have written the first draft, reread what you have written to refine your wording.EditingRead through your first draft. Look for typos such as spelling and grammatical errors. Also look for awkward phrasing or parts of speech. Read sections aloud: do they make sense? If so, reword those sections.Consider the vocabulary you are using: Is it appropriate? Are you potentially using language that may go over your audience’s heads, or perhaps is too elementary? Consider your tone, style and verbiage. Also consider the structure of your argument: does your speech actually make sense?It is helpful to give your first draft to another person to review and edit, as it helps to have a fresh set of eyes look at your material.RevisingOnce edits have been made, implement those suggestions and changes to your draft. When you begin revising, you may find that you are making more changes along the way and may write multiple drafts. The editing and revising process becomes a cycle of newer drafts. Eventually, the revisions will be done and you will have settled on your final draft.Dealing with Writer’s BlockHave you ever sat down in front of your computer, a blank document open, the cursor just blinking at you…and no words come to your brain?
Don’t panic! It is a harrowing moment for any writer, but don’t be alarmed: writer’s block is perfectly natural and there are ways to overcome it.Some tackle writer’s block by forcing themselves to write anything, as long as they keep writing. You can set a timer and commit to keep writing without stopping until that timer ends. Hopefully, that will be enough of a boost to get your writer’s juices flowing.If not, walk away from your speech for a little while. Sometimes it is good to clear your mind from a subject in which you are thoroughly engrossed in order to gain a fresh perspective.When in doubt, two heads are better than one. Call up a friend, colleague, or classmate and share ideas with them. They just might have the inspiration and outside perspective you need to get your hands flying across your keyboard in no time.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/wording-the-speech/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Preparing to PresentPractice makes perfect! You’ve written your speech: congrats! Now it’s time to work on just how you plan to present your speech and prepare it accordingly (Figure 3.13).
First, decide how you’ll present your speech: will you read your newly minted speech verbatim from script? Or will you memorize it? Or will you simple read off an outline or notes?Reading Your Speech Word for WordFor your first speech, it might be helpful to have it completely typed up and ready for you to read verbatim in front of a crowd. You may feel more confident having your exact wording in place assembled right there in front of you.Reading verbatim from a script has its drawbacks; you may be limited in how much eye contact you can engage in with your audience. As such, your audience may more quickly disconnect from your words and you as speaker. Additionally, speeches read straight from a script or manuscript often feel stodgy and stilted, which is a sure way to bore your audience and lose their attention fast.Memorizing Your SpeechYou can memorize your speech in the same way that you might memorize lines or a monologue for a theatrical play. By freeing yourself from reading off a sheet or many sheets of paper, you lose some of the rigidity that comes with reading a speech off a script. There’s less for your hands to fumble with, allowing you to take a more open body position as you deliver your speech, making you more engaging with your audience.However, one of the biggest disadvantages to memorizing a speech can be unexpected stage fright where you might clam up entirely, unable to remember your speech. It never hurts to have a copy of your speech on hand when you plan on memorizing your speech. Speaking Extemporaneously from NotesThe middle ground between reading from script and memorizing your speech is to read from notes. By preparing an outline or a few note cards with keys points in the order you plan to present them, you have the freedom to have open body posture with a safety net of reference. Speaking from notes sometimes involves keeping your hands busy holding the notes and it does draw your eye contact periodically away from the audience. The tradeoff is worthwhile because it allows you to have an engaging stance combined with an outline of your speech.Dealing with NervesIt’s completely normal to be nervous about giving your first speech in front of a large group of people. Even world leaders get butterflies in their stomach before addressing the world stage.
To help combat your fears, just remember: if you flub your speech it’s probably not going to kill you, so why stress?You can also ease your fears by taking the time to practice frequently. Read your speech out loud so you begin to develop muscle memory around your phrases and sentences. You can even read your speech in front of trusted friends or colleagues. By practicing in front of a smaller group, you can take the edge off having to present in front of a larger group. Additionally, having your friends as the test audience will give them an opportunity to provide you with valuable feedback about what you’re doing well and where you need to improve.If you’re not sure what you look like while speaking, practice in front of a mirror. Better yet, record yourself and play back the recording a few times to yourself. Watching yourself speak is another great way to help calm your nerves and break the tension while discovering subtle facial movements or body language that might actually hurt your speech.
Like how you dress, enunciate, and use body language can be just as important as what you say. The big day has arrived: it’s time to present your speech! Besides remaining calm and speaking clearly and at a loud enough volume, here are the most important things to consider as you present your speech (Figure 3.14). Dress to ImpressThe way you look as you give your speech is almost as important as the words coming out of your mouth. It’s imperative to know the dress code for the event at which you’re speaking. If you’re the best man at your best friend’s wedding, you will probably be wearing a tux. Unless of course it’s a beach wedding, when flip flops and shorts could be totally appropriate.In a business setting, men should wear a button-down shirt and dress pants and shoes; depending on how formal the business setting, this may also include a suit jacket and tie. Women should wear a dress, dress pants or skirt with a button-down top, blazer, blouse or nice sweater. Shoes can be heels or flats and should be appropriate to your setting.For men and women, it’s also helpful to consider how long your speech is and if you’re expected to stand for the duration of your speech when determining appropriate yet comfortable footwear.Watch Your Body LanguageIn the same vein that how you look is almost as important as what you say, how you stand can be just as important as your words. Humans pick up subtle cues with regard to emotion through non-verbal communications in body language. When delivering your speech, you want to make sure you have a confident, open stance to convey your confidence. Standing hunched over or with your arms crossed will close off your body to your audience, thereby shutting them out.Similarly, make eye contact with your audience. Sometimes this makes speakers nervous, but it’s an important technique to really connect with your audience. If the idea of making direct contact makes you uncomfortable, you can always scan your view around the room looking just above your audience’s heads; it achieves the same connective effect.Finally, if you can move around, do. It builds visual interest for your audience and also helps you to work out jitters if you have them. You might be confined behind a podium or lectern, in which case your largest range of motion may be restricted to hand gestures and your gaze around the room. If you can walk out from behind a podium and across a stage, take the opportunity.
Just don’t wander, watch where you step, and try not to make your audience motion sick by walking back and forth too much.Articulate and EnunciateSpeak your words clearly. Don’t rush your sentences or let the ends of your sentences drop in volume. You’ve worked this hard to write and prepare your speech–you want to make sure your audience understands what you have to say.Avoid saying “um”, “uh”, or “like” (when it doesn’t belong in a sentence). These are usually nervous habits that take time to break. If you feel an “um” coming on, simply pause for a brief moment before moving past it. Additionally, don’t be afraid of silence when you’re making a dramatic or compelling point. And sometimes, be prepared for your audience to interrupt you with clapping or laughing. You might need to stop a sentence to let the audience do its thing while you resume as it dies down.Have a Backup PlanIf you have supplementary materials such as visual aids or a PowerPoint presentation, have a backup plan in place in case some piece of equipment doesn’t work. You may want to have printouts just in case a computer or projector doesn’t work.Similarly, if you’ve memorized your speech or may be reading from a teleprompter, have a printed copy of your speech or an outline of your speech on hand just in case you get a case of stage fright or equipment fails.One More ThingBefore you walk off that stage or sit back down in your seat, always thank your audience.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/delivering-the-speech/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource
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• Before you can begin writing your speech, you must first establish the main topic about which you plan to speak.• Brainstorm early and often! You can try a variety of techniques to get your mental juices flowing, from clustering to free writing. Even just talking through your ideas with another person as a sounding board is a great way to get ideas.• Once you start to get an idea of your topic, do a little preliminary research. See what others may have written or said about your general topic; reading their ideas may help give you some new ideas or directions of your own.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Take into account the demographics of your audience: gender, age, industry, the event at which you’re speaking, common interests, culture and ethnicity, and how much they already may or may not know about your speech topic.• Never stereotype your audience based on any of their demographics.• Be mindful of gestures, colloquialisms, idioms, or other ethnocentric expressions (slang, mannerisms, etc.) you might make during your speech. It’s important to recognize what is accepted in one culture may be offensive in another.
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• Make sure you find credible sources of information, whether they be from scholarly sources that have been peer-reviewed, or irrefutable facts.• There are many places you can go to research; while the internet might seem like the easiest place to find information, you always want to double check to make sure those sources are accurate and credible.• Don’t use research that might be outdated, particularly with regard to scientific or technological advances.• Make sure you acknowledge your sources. You may not directly reference them in your speech, but if questioned afterward, you’ll want to know from where you found your information.• Never copy information word for word and claim it as your own; this is plagiarism and erodes the ethical integrity of you, your speech, and your reputation.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• The main argument of your speech is your thesis statement: what case are you trying to make?• If you are arguing for or against a certain idea, belief or topic, you must provide compelling evidence to support your position.• When crafting your thesis statement, consider potential arguments, questions, or concerns someone with an opposing viewpoint may have. This process helps you develop a more robust thesis.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Set the stage for how you plan to address your argument and make your case by laying out the exposition of your argument.• Appeal to your audience’s core beliefs, goals or common interests to influence your audience by persuasion.• If you are speaking to a sympathetic crowd, consider influencing your audience by suggestion or popular sentiment on your given topic.• Use personal narratives and anecdotes to make your case if appropriate to your audience, topic, and speech venue.• If your idea is complex, consider breaking it down into simpler parts to more thoroughly and easily describe your idea. Help your audience to visualize your points by articulately describing them.
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• To organize your thoughts, consider giving each point or supporting evidence its own note card. Begin to arrange them according to importance and your main points will begin to emerge.• Outlines typically begin with your thesis and end with any concluding thoughts.• Depending on your topic or thesis, arranging your points chronologically is an effective way to establish a timeline of your argument.• If giving an informational speech, you might describe your subject as parts of an object, outlining each part or section.• You can move from broad points to specific points, or vice versa, depending on the effect you are trying to achieve and the argument you are trying to make.
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• Use the ABC approach to begin your first draft. The Abstract explains your thesis. The Body features your main points and supporting evidence. The Conclusion contains your final thoughts and reiterates your point.• Make sure to have all of your notes and research close by and easily accessible so you can turn to your sources as often as you need to while your draft your speech.• Editing and revising are not the same thing. To edit, review your speech for changes. To revise, actually implement those changes. Editing and revising are cyclical in nature as you continue to hone your draft.• If on your first draft you find yourself going off on a tangent, allow yourself to follow it. You can always edit, revise and remove sections later that are wordy or off-topic.• Writer’s block can happen to even the best writers. Take a break for a few minutes and come back to your speech renewed and refreshed. But don’t stay away too long or you might lose your momentum.
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• Determine how you will present your speech: will you read it verbatim, memorize it, or read from an outline of notes?• Reading verbatim has both its positives and negatives. On the plus side, you’ll have your entire speech written out in front of you; however, these types of speeches tend to feel a bit stilted to audience members.• Memorizing your speech can seem like a weighty task, but it allows you to retain all of your key points and wording while still appearing natural and effortless to your audience. It frees you from having to read right off of a manuscript.• When speaking extemporaneously, you can have a rough outline of your notes. You might have this on a single sheet or perhaps across several notecards. In either case, these serve as reminders about your topic, your points and in what order they should be shared.• If you’re nervous about presenting in front of a group of people for the first time, work out your nerves by asking a small group of friends or colleagues to be your test audience. Your test audience can give you immediate feedback on what you did well and how you could improve.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS (cont.)
• Ever wonder what you look like while giving a speech? Practice in front of a mirror, or better yet: record yourself. You’ll be able to see if you have any unconscious gestures or habits that you can correct or prevent as you feel them happening.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Make sure you dress to impress. While some speeches may be delivered in a casual setting, you want to make sure you’re wearing clothing appropriate to the dress code of your event.• Be aware of your body language. A closed body position (arms crossed, shoulders hunched) and lack of eye contact will make it extremely difficult for your audience to engage with you.• Engage your audience by making eye contact with them. If making eye contact wigs you out, you can always look just above their heads to give the same effect.• Stand up straight, remember to breathe, and limit your “um”s, “uh”s, and “like”s. Use whole phrases like “should have” instead of “shoulda.” Avoid slang or profanity.• Have a backup plan in case equipment fails for things such as visual aids, PowerPoint presentations, or teleprompters.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Choosing a TopicAnalyzing the Who, Why, and Where Topic Research: Gathering Materials and EvidenceDeveloping Your ThesisSupporting Your IdeasOrganizing and Outlining the SpeechWording the SpeechPreparing to PresentDelivering the SpeechMETA TAG (title): Section 2META TAG (title): Steps to Preparing a SpeechMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Choosing a TopicAnalyzing the Who, Why, and Where Topic Research: Gathering Materials and EvidenceDeveloping Your ThesisSupporting Your IdeasOrganizing and Outlining the SpeechWording the SpeechPreparing to PresentDelivering the SpeechMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Section 2Steps to Preparing a SpeechMETA TAG (title): 69META TAG (title): https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/steps-to-preparing-a-speech/ META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 70META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): When using clusters, think of your main topic as the hub of the wheel; each spoke is another idea about how to approach that topic.META TAG (title): Figure 3.6 Clustering Brainstorm TechniqueMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 71META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 72META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 73META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Knowing your audience is key to crafting an effective, successful speech.META TAG (title): Figure 3.7 An audience waiting for a show to begin.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 74META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 75META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Make sure you thorough research and gather enough evidence and supporting materials in order to confidently and competently talk about your topic.META TAG (title): Figure 3.8 Student researching.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 76META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 77META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Your thesis is the main argument of your speech.META TAG (title): Figure 3.9 Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 78META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 79META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): It’s important to select the right evidence and supporting materials to help you establish the various points you plan to make throughout your speech.META TAG (title): Figure 3.10 Preparing supporting ideas and materialsMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 80META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 81META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Organize your main points and supporting research and evidence in a way that will make sense to your audience.META TAG (title): Figure 3.11 Arranging notes and research to form an outlineMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 82META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 83META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Carefully choose the best words and phrasing for your speech.META TAG (title): Figure 3.12 Handwritten speech notes by President Ronald ReaganMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 84META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 85META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 86META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Take the time you need to rehearse and prepare your speech before getting up in front of your audience.META TAG (title): Figure 3.13 A student rehearses his speech.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 87META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 88META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Once you put together all the elements of your speech and prepare well, it’s time to get out there and deliver your speech!META TAG (title): Figure 3.14 A woman delivers a speech at a TEDx event.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 89META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title):
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META TAG (title): UntitledIntroductionThe introduction of your speech establishes your speech’s purpose, previews your key points and tells your audience why they should listen. Your Introduction: Set the Tone for Your Speech”Begin at the beginning.” While this might be a line from the fantastical world of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, it’s an excellent piece of advice when thinking about the introduction to your speech (Figure 3.1 ). The introduction is the first part of your speech that will ultimately set the tone for the rest of your speech.With the introduction, you have the power to capture your audience’s attention and interest while simultaneously giving them an understanding of what they’re about to hear for the next five, ten or even sixty minutes. An introduction can make or break a speech, because if you can’t capture your audience’s attention right at the beginning, how will they possibly remain interested for the duration of your speech?Capture Your Audience’s AttentionWhen crafting your speech, you’ll want to select an attention-getter to use in your introduction to instantly capture your audience’s attention right from the beginning of your speech (Figure 3.2 ).
There are a variety of attention-getting techniques you can use, including humor, sharing an anecdote or quotation, or referencing historical or current events.Using references is a simple and effective way to grab your audience’s attention. You may make reference to the event at which you’re speaking or share a personal reference to the topic about which you’re speaking. It’s important to remember that you want to select an attention-getter that is appropriate to your topic, your audience and the venue or occasion at which you are speaking.State Your PurposeWhen beginning your speech and as you capture your audience’s attention, you’ll want to express exactly why they should listen to you.
You may be giving a speech arguing a certain point. You might be giving an informational speech about a specific topic. Your speech could even be spoken at a special event such as an awards banquet, wedding or political event. Regardless of the context of your speech, it is important to establish the purpose of your speech to your audience so your audience knows why they should listen to you.Your introduction is not just an introduction of about what you plan to speak, but an introduction of who you are and why you are the appropriate individual to speak about your subject. In some speeches, you may be preceded by someone who will introduce you to your audience. If not, it’s important to establish your credibility and authority as the speech-giver to your audience.Outline Your AgendaIt is helpful for your audience to know about what you plan to speak. Use your introduction as an opportunity to share your train of thought with your audience. You don’t have to break your speech organization down into minute detail; that’s what the body of your speech will accomplish. Give your audience an overview of your main points so they have an idea of what to expect as your continue with your speech.Writing Your IntroductionAs counterintuitive as this may seem, you actually want to write your introduction last. Since the introduction is often used as an outline for the key points of your speech, it’s helpful to have written the entire speech to be able to distill your speech into its major points and arguments.
Once you have your entire speech written minus your introduction, it’s much easier to see just which points emerge as your major points.You’ll also want to make sure that you write your introduction word for word. While extemporaneous speeches don’t give you this kind of freedom, writing your introduction verbatim, or word for word, is vital for any prepared remarks. By writing it down word for word, you can quickly see if you’ve left out any of your major points as you set up your speech outline. You can also see if you have the right attention-getter suitable to your topic, audience and venue. Finally, since your introduction sets the tone for the rest of your speech, preparing it word for word allows you to begin your speech with confidence.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/components-of-a-speech/introduction–12/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource BodyThe body of your speech is the point at which you go into full detail about each of your main points. The body is where you tell your story. Your Speech Body: Deliver Your Main PointsOnce you’ve captured the attention of your audience with an smashing introduction, it’s time to move into the meat-and-potatoes of your speech: the body. The body should take up about three-quarters of your entire speech time, since this is where you will go into detail about your main points (Figure 3.3 ).Establish Your PurposeTypically, there are three general reasons why you might be giving a speech: to entertain, to inform, or to argue a point. Each of these purposes requires a slightly different approach in order to successfully communicate its objectives to an audience.
Once you’ve established your purpose, you can formulate a strategy for achieving that purpose with your main points. To illustrate each main point, you will need to use a series of examples.Determine Your Main PointsOnce you have your purpose established, it’s time to decide what main points you will use to achieve that purpose. You’ll want to start by brainstorming a list of all possible main points to support your purpose. Once you’ve completed this list, begin to assign them weights and priorities. Consider which points more effectively communicate your purpose than others. You may want to nest some points under others, thereby creating a natural hierarchy of main points and sub-points.Equally important is determining exactly what does not belong in your speech or is irrelevant to your subject. Ultimately, you’ll want to boil down your main points to no more than three or four points. While this may seem minimalistic, know that your audience will only be able to remember so much, and you don’t want to overwhelm them with too much information.
Three or four main points allow you to develop complete arguments in order to support your purpose, while still enabling your audience to follow your logic.Decide How You Will Tell Your StoryYou’ll want to have compelling evidence to support each main point of your speech. This evidence can be in the form of researched data, facts and figures, or even personal anecdotes and references. You may cite quotations and historical or current events to further bolster your arguments. Depending on your subject, audience and venue, humor may also be appropriate to weave throughout your speech.If the purpose of your speech is to inform, you will rely heavily on data, statistics and research to illustrate your points. You may even use an accompanying presentation, video, chart, or images to help support your purpose.If the purpose of your speech is to argue, you may find yourself using a combination of research and anecdotes to get your points across. You may also use accompanying media to illustrate your points; however, your data should be tailored to best argue your particular case. This is not to say that you should manipulate your data; rather, present only the information that your audience needs to see and hear to support whatever argument you are trying to make.If the purpose of your speech is to entertain, you’ll rely more heavily on anecdotes than on hard research to get your points across. Humor is more than appropriate in this situation, but use it in moderation: you don’t want to jeopardize your credibility in front of your audience.
No matter the purpose or order of your main points, it’s important that you remember to stick to the outline of your speech. If you begin to wander off topic by sharing too many anecdotes, or presenting extraneous data, your audience may not be able to keep up and you will quickly begin to lose their interest.Writing the BodyOnce you’ve brainstormed and refined the main points of your speech, you can begin to write the body of your speech. The easiest strategy is to create an outline of your main points and list the supporting evidence you’ll provide for each main point. Depending on how comfortable you are with memorization, this may be all you need when you get up in front of your audience.Many professional speakers do not rely on anything other than a brief outline of their speech, either memorizing what they plan to say in advance or simply speaking extemporaneously with only a basic guide. If this is one of your first speeches, and the situation allows, you may want to write your complete body word for word.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/components-of-a-speech/body/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource ConclusionThe conclusion of your speech summarizes your purpose and main points while leaving a lasting impression with your audience. Your Conclusion: Leave a Lasting ImpressionIf your body is the meat and potatoes of your speech, then the conclusion is the icing on the cake (Figure 3.4 ). Your conclusion is delivered at the end of the speech and is often what most people remember immediately after your speech has ended. As important as your introduction is for grabbing the audience’s attention, the conclusion is doubly important as it leaves the audience with a lasting impression. Summarize Your Main PointsThe purpose of the conclusion is to summarize your main points and to prepare the audience for the end of your speech. You’ll want to recapture the essence of your speech: your main points and the purpose of why you spoke. It is especially important to remember that the conclusion of your speech is not the time to introduce new points or new supporting evidence; doing so will only confuse the audience. Try to think of your conclusion like tying a bow or a ribbon: it’s the final touch that makes your project stand out.Paraphrasing Versus RepeatingWhile summarizing your main points is important, be wary of simply repeating your main points word for word.
You’ll want to paraphrase your main points rather than directly repeat them from your speech’s body. Paraphrasing allows you to capture the essence of your speech, unlike rote repetition of identical sentences you may have spoken just minutes earlier.End on a High NoteYour conclusion is the last thing your audience hears from you. Just as an introduction can make or break a speech, you always want to end your speech on a high note with something memorable. The conclusion is where you’ll insert your take-away message: what do you want the audience to remember after you’ve finished speaking? What do you want them to recall in the days or weeks after your speech?To create a memorable ending, you may want to share a quotation or anecdote. It’s important to remain relatable and credible to the audience up until your final word, so be sure to craft your conclusion in a way that is still appropriate to the topic, audience, and venue.Writing Your ConclusionLike the introduction, you’ll want to write your conclusion last. The introduction and conclusion of your speech serve as bookends to your speech’s body, so it only makes sense that you’ll want to craft them after you’ve written your body.Review your speech’s body and ensure that you’ve touched upon all the main points you wish to discuss, then rephrase those main points in your conclusion. Determine the take-home message that you want to leave with your audience and either include it word for word in your conclusion or use it as a guiding theme for how you’ll end your speech. If you have any final anecdotes or quotations to share that either drive home a particular point or capture the theme of your speech, include it here.While there is no set time or sentence limit for your conclusion, make sure you don’t finish your speech so suddenly that your audience is caught off guard when the speech ends.
Using trigger phrases such as “in conclusion” or “in summary” signify to your audience that the speech is about to end and that they should pay special attention to your final thoughts.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/components-of-a-speech/conclusion/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource TransitionsTransitions allow your speech to flow smoothly from one section or point to another. As you craft your speech, you will need to transition from one point to the next to fully articulate your purpose or objectives (Figure 3.5 ). When read aloud, your speech should flow smoothly from introduction to body, from main point to main point and then finally into your conclusion. Transitions are essential in order to help your audience follow along your line of reasoning.Types of TransitionsThere are different types of transitions often used in speeches, including:
• Temporal- using words like before and after• Equality-highlighting points of equal importance like in addition or moreover• Causality- using words that show cause and effect• Compare and Contrast- using words and phrases that compare one part of the speech to the next, like contrarily or on the other hand• Introductions and summaries are also types of transitions to let listeners know what a person will be speaking about and offering a way to understand the important parts of a speechThe Art of the SegueTo move from one point and into the next, you’ll want to segue into your new point. Sometimes your points may share similar themes or concepts – order your points in such a way as to capitalize on those similarities. You can also use opposition to present opposing main points. If you have multiple pieces of supporting evidence, you may need to transition between examples so that your audience knows you are furthering a point with another example, anecdote or set of researched data.However you decide to transition, you’ll want to use triggering keywords that let your audience know you’re moving on to a new point. Ordinal words like “next,” “second and “third” give your audience the heads up that you’re about to proceed in a new or continued direction of thought.Writing TransitionsAfter you have identified your main points and outlined what evidence you’ll use to support them, begin to prioritize and sort your main points so they follow in the most logical order. From there, you’ll be able to pinpoint how you’ll want to transition your speech from one point to the next. Try to think of transitions as a way to connect the dots of your speech’s purpose.
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• Figure 3.1 Your introduction should immediately capture your audience’s attention and interest.• Introduce yourself and who you are in your introduction to establish your credibility and authority to be speaking on your given subject.• Your introduction should give your audience a preview of what they can expect to hear for the duration of your speech.• When preparing your speech, it’s actually easier to write your introduction last, after you have written the rest of your speech.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Organize your thoughts into a cohesive, logical flow of ideas.• Each main point of your speech should support your speech’s purpose.• Use a variety of examples to illustrate the main points of your speech, from research, facts and figures, to personal anecdotes and references.• Don’t be afraid to let your personality come through; know your audience and tailor your approach accordingly. The body of your speech should be creative and engaging.• Don’t stray too far from your outline; you will quickly lose your audience’s interest if you begin wandering off topic into points or anecdotes that don’t support your speech’s purpose or objective. You don’t want to appear disorganized or sound overly verbose.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Use your conclusion as an opportunity to summarize the main points of your speech.• Don’t repeat your main points word for word; rather, paraphrase the key themes and arguments you have just presented.• Consider ending your speech with an additional anecdote or quotation that captures the theme of your speech.• Don’t introduce any new points or supportive evidence into your conclusion as it will confuse your audience.• Use trigger phrases such as “in conclusion” or “in summary” to prepare your audience for the end of your speech.• Write your conclusion at the same time as the introduction (after you write the body) so that the introduction and conclusion complement one another.META TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Transitions are used to show the linkage or connection between main points.• Types of transitions include temporal, equality, causality, compare and contrast, and summary.• After you determine the main points of your speech, order them logically and then determine how you will transition from one point to the next.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): IntroductionBodyConclusionTransitionsMETA TAG (title): Section 1META TAG (title): Components of a SpeechMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): IntroductionBodyConclusionTransitionsMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Section 1Components of a SpeechMETA TAG (title): 58META TAG (title): https://www.boundless.com/communications/preparing-a-speech-a-process-outline/components-of-a-speech/ META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 59META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Your introduction should immediately capture your audience’s attention and interest.META TAG (title): Figure 3.1 .President William Howard Taft introducing the Springfield Municipal Group in Springfield, Massachusetts.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Your introduction will set the tone for the rest of your speech.META TAG (title): Figure 3.2 Aziza Brahim & Memona Mohamed during a press conference presentation of the movie “Wilaya”, at the 10th Human Rights film festival in San Sebastian, Spain.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 60META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 61META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 62META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Commander Naval Reserve Force Vice Adm. John G. Cotton is silhouetted in front of a Powerpoint slide, mapping out the Naval Reserve Force’s future. Cotton spoke with hundreds of reservists at Naval Station North Island’s theater during an All-Hands call, and outlined the Chief of Naval Operations’ (CNO) “One Navy” view on what lies ahead for the 88,000 Naval Reserve Force Sailors. U.S. Navy photo by Journalist 1st Class Greg Cleghorne.META TAG (title): Figure 3.3 Use the body of your speech to go into detail about your main points.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 63META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 64META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 65META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Conclusion of a Presentation at Wiki Conference India.META TAG (title): Figure 3.4 The conclusion of your speech summarizes your main points and purpose while leaving a lasting impression on your audience.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 66META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 67META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Your speech should flow logically and smoothly from one point to the next.META TAG (title): Figure 3.5 A public speaker.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 68META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title):
Plagiarism When Using The Internet
META TAG (title): UntitledWhat is Plagiarism?Plagiarism involves the taking of someone else’s words or ideas and trying to attribute them as your own. When most students think of plagiarism, they may think of outright copying another’s works (Figure 2.5 ). However, plagiarism can delve into some murky territory that includes everything from wrongful appropriation to blatant thievery. While plagiarism may not be a crime per se, in many academic and professional contexts, plagiarism carries with it serious risks, including expulsion and/or termination from a position, organization, or company.In its simplest form, plagiarism occurs when someone takes the words or ideas of someone else and attempts to present them as their own. Presenting someone else’s work as your own is what distinguishes plagiarism from mere citation or quotation. When you quote or cite someone or something, you give credit to where the quote or idea originates.The “ideas” part of plagiarism can be especially tricky. Who’s not to say that two completely different people could have had the exact same idea at the exact same moment? Inevitably, one person would be named a copycat. And while this does happen, the instances are few and far between.We’ll say it right now: deliberate plagiarism should be avoided at every moment in your academic and professional career.
To knowingly take the work of others and attribute it as your own is quite simply unethical, unprofessional, and just plain wrong. If you think you can get away with it, think again: many academic and professional services can detect if sections or portions of your work are found elsewhere, particularly on the internet. Additionally, if you have developed a unique writing style and author’s voice, it can become very obvious when you cut and paste a completely different author’s style and tone into the middle of your work.That said, unintended plagiarism is more common than you might think.Sometimes the problem stems from working too closely with source material. If you find that your phrasing or speech structure begins to mirror too much of your source research, consider writing with the aid of notes, as opposed to whole sources such as books, articles, or web pages.
You might find it’s easier to craft original compositions of your own by working off of your own notes and paraphrasing. It can be tempting to grab a line or two when you’re crunched for time, but avoid the temptation. Is expulsion or termination worth the ten minutes of corner cutting?Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/public-speaking-ethics/plagiarism/what-is-plagiarism/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resource Avoiding Plagiarism When Using the InternetIn the age of the Internet and social media, it can be both very easy and very tempting to plagiarize. In short: don’t. In Haste?
Don’t Copy and Paste. When pressed for time with a looming deadline, you might think a quick copy and paste of a few sentences here or maybe a paragraph there might be an easy solution. While it certainly is easy to Control+C, Control+V your way through a speech, it’s certainly not wise.It might be tempting to fire up your browser and pick a relevant source buried deep within the search results. “Who looks all the way at what’s on search page 10?” you may be thinking. Just because it’s obscure doesn’t mean it’s okay to take it and claim it as your own.If you get caught, you could face serious academic or professional consequences. Plus—on a very plain note—it’s just not cool.
It’s just bad intellectual form. In the age of the Internet, as easy as it can be to just lift something from a relevant but obscure source via Google, it’s equally as easy to get caught plagiarizing the words of others (Figure 2.6 ).Yes. Yes, You Will Get Caught.With the advent of complex, proprietary search engine algorithms has come another niche market: plagiarism detection. If you think you can get away with just borrowing a sentence here or there, beware: sites like CopyScape and Plagiarism.org’s software can be used by academics and professionals alike, running your work through their programs to see if anything comes up with a red flag.And if you think you can fool plagiarism detection software, don’t count out manual checking, either. You might pull a sentence or idea from an obscure professional or expert in the field, but keep in mind that your professor is an expert in this field; he or she is likely to have read whatever you’re copying.When in doubt, avoid the temptation to plagiarize despite the seemingly endless availability of content online. Your speech is better served when your words are original and genuine.Source: https://www.boundless.com/communications/public-speaking-ethics/plagiarism/avoiding-plagiarism-when-using-the-internet/CC-BY-SABoundless is an openly licensed educational resourceMETA TAG (title): KEY POINTS
• Word to the wise: just don’t plagiarize. Seriously. Don’t do it.• Intentional plagiarism isn’t as easy to get away with as you think: institutions and companies have ways of detecting whether or not you’ve plagiarized your work, and it can have serious academic and professional repercussions if you are caught.• If you find yourself tempted to nab a couple of lines from one of your research sources, put the full source away. Instead, rely on your own notes and paraphrasing to lessen the temptation to outright copy the work of another.
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• Just because you can copy and paste a few sentences or paragraphs from an obscure Internet source doesn’t mean you should.• Many academic institutions and even some professional organizations use online plagiarism detection software, such as CopyScape, Attributor and PlagiarismDetect.• Just because you might thwart an online plagiarism detector doesn’t mean you don’t run the risk of being caught via manual plagiarism detection, either.• When in doubt, avoid the temptation to plagiarize despite the seemingly endless availability of content online. Your speech is better served when your words are original and genuine.META TAG (title): META TAG (title): What is Plagiarism?Avoiding Plagiarism When Using the Internet META TAG (title): Section 2META TAG (title): PlagiarismMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): What is Plagiarism?Avoiding Plagiarism When Using the Internet META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Section 2PlagiarismMETA TAG (title): 53META TAG (title): https://www.boundless.com/communications/public-speaking-ethics/plagiarism/ META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 54META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): Plagiarism is stealing, plain and simple.META TAG (title): Figure 2.5 PlagiarismMETA TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 55META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): 56META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): META TAG (title): As tempting as it might be to plagiarize with the vastness of available sources on the internet – don’t do it.META TAG (title): Figure 2.6 Avoiding Plagiarism on the InternetMETA TAG (title):
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